Fuel

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Sorry, this entry is only available in 日本語.

staff on 2011/01/11 14:32
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Sorry, this entry is only available in 日本語.

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Toyota Motor announced it’s developing a magnesium battery.

The company’s technical center in Ann Arbor, Michigan, is working on the magnesium-sulfur battery, complementing development of other future electric-power chemistries at Toyota labs in Japan, Jeffrey Makarewicz, the engineer managing the U.S. project, said in an interview at the North American International Auto Show in Detroit.

Vehicles with magnesium batteries or alternative materials may be ready by about 2020, Makarewicz said. (Bloomberg)

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Greentech Media said:

The Department of Energy announced $106M today in funding for 37 experimental projects that could radically change the ways that we think of “alternative energy.”

One of these projects is an inexpensive, rechargeable magnesium-ion battery for electric and hybrid-electric vehicle.

Pellion Technologies, Inc. – $3.2M – the project will develop an inexpensive, rechargeable magnesium-ion battery for electric and hybrid-electric vehicle applications. Computational methods and accelerated chemical synthesis will be used to develop new materials and chemistries.

staff on 2010/03/26 15:36
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WIRED VISION introduces “Magnesium battery” developed by TSC and SAITEC. (This article is written in Japanese)
TSC and SAITEC is developping primary battery “magnesium-air battery” and “magnesium-water battery”, secondary battery “magnesium-metal battery”.

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November 24, 2009 – NEDO (Geothermal Energy Development Department) announced that SAITEC (Saitama Industrial Technology Center) developed positive electrode material for magnesium-ion secondary battery. You can read the press release here (written in Japanese).
The following is quotation from the press release (tranlated by MgCiv staff).

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staff on 2010/01/12 17:30
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Question:
Magnesium reacts with water or oxygen easily. Isn’t it dangerous?
In addition, can metal magnesium be stored for a long term because it is easily oxydized?

Answer:

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staff on 2009/12/24 09:36
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An article “Magnesium can be burned at power generation plants” explains that the reaction between magnesium and water generates heat and the hydrogen generated from the reaction can be burned to produce high-temperature, high-pressure steam.
The following movie shows an experiment of magnesium engine at Tokyo Institute of Technology in 2006.
When 2mm-granular magnesium is mixed with water, it becomes muddy fuel. We can throw the fuel into an engine continually and burn it easily.

staff on 2009/12/13 22:19
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We can burn hydrogen which is generated from magnesium and water. The reaction between magnesium and water also generates heat. Through clever use of this heat, the hydrogen generated from the reaction can be burned to produce high-temperature, high-pressure steam. This steam can then be used to rotate turbine to obtain mechanical power, or it can be used for electrical power generation.
In this case, the amount of heat generated from 1kg of magnesium is 25 Mega Joules including the heat generated by burning hydrogen. Coal, on the other hand, generates 30 Mega Joules, which is slightly higher than that from magnesium. However, there is nothing useful remaining after coal is burned; it is not easy to dispose of cinder, and a large amount of carbon dioxide (CO₂) is produced as coal burns.
On the other hand, magnesium oxide, which is produced as magnesium burns (reacts with oxygen), can be recycled to obtain magnesium. The only substances that are produced through burning magnesium are magnesium oxide and water (generated through burning hydrogen) and there is no carbon dioxide emission. There may be a time in the future when magnesium is burned instead of coal at electrical power generation plants.

staff on 2009/12/13 19:22
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eVionyx's zinc fuel cell car

eVionyx's zinc fuel cell car

Magnesium can also be used as a fuel for fuel cells.
A lot of laboratories are developing a metal-air battery, such as zinc, aluminium, iron, lithium and magnesium. It is a battery which uses oxidizing properties between metal and oxygen. An ordinary battery needs cathode active and anode active. On the other hand, cathode active of the metal-air battery is oxygen. If metal as anode active can be exchangeable, the metal-air battery becomes a fuel cell.
A passenger fuel cell vehicle requires 6kg of hydrogen in order to run 500km, and the same quantity of energy is produced from about 70kg of magnesium. When it is put in practical use, it is thought that a pack of magnesium cassette will be installed in the power generation compartment of fuel cells. You would replace fuel packs just like you fill up the gas tank of you car with gasoline at a gas station now.
In 2003, a research-oriented venture company for metal fuel cells, eVionyx (Hawthorne, New York State), has developed an experimental car by converting a regular passenger car, and has achieved a continuous run of 600km without replacing its fuel cells. They have also proved that there was no problem in running the vehicle by replacing its fuel cells for over 100 times.
Based on this experimental data, the efficiency of a zinc fuel cell is 500 Watt-Hour per 1kg. If you apply this experimental data to magnesium, the efficiency of a magnesium fuel cell would be 1500 Watt-hour for 1kg of magnesium, which far exceeds that of a lithium ion battery (200Wh).